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Ubiquitous Computing – A vision that can become reality – Invisible “computers”, everywhere, in all things, always at work, interact on the Internet

Compiled by BG Wennersten, April 2007


1st What is ubiquitous computing? …………………………………….. 4

2nd What drives the ubiquitous computing? ………………………… 8
What slowed the progression? ………………………………………….. .. 15

3rd Where will ubicomp be? ………………………………… 18
4th How will ubicomp to apply? ……………………………. 21
Many ideas for potential applications …………………………… 21

Applications in the home ……………………………………….. ………. 22
Applications to work ……………………………………….. .24

Applications in Health Care ………………………… 28
Applications in trade ……………………………………….. …. 30
Applications in traffic and mobility ……………………………… 31

Applications of RFID will in all areas …………….. 34

5th Questions about ubicomp ……………………………………….. …….. 38

What is ubiquitous computing?

What does “ubiquitous”?

Ubiquitous [ju: 'bikwit.s] means “being everywhere or in many places while “. The word comes from the Latin ubique, “everywhere”. Ubiquitous computing can mean all sorts of information and services are available “everywhere, always, for all, in any form”. Ubiquitous computing in focus for data development In recent years it has begun to speak more clearly about ubiquitous computing. Since a groundbreaking vision was formulated in the early nineties representsthis is a big and growing area of ​​research and development across the world.

Today, ubiquitous computing, the main focal point within the data-R with large budgets and contributions from several disciplines in the U.S., Japan and the EU. The phenomenon of ubiquitous computing goes under several different names depending on which point of view. It is also called pervasive computing (especially in the U.S. computer industry), ambient intelligence (EU version of the ubiquitous computing), the internet of things (the communications industry in the U.S.), ubiquitous network society (Japan). For initiates shortened like these things to “Ubicomp”, “percomp”, or in Europe “Ami” (= ambient intelligence).

Broadly, these research and development areas with their different designations of variations on this theme: ubiquitous computing, computers in the work all around us, always ready to deliver its services to the user. New computer era is on its way Ubiquitous computing is emerging as the third era of computerization history since mankind began using computers:

1st Central Computer-era: a central computer used by many people, for example by terminals.

2nd PC era: one computer used by a person in a deliberate and focused way, often at their desk.

3rd Ubiquitous computing era: one person, many computers. Countless computers

built-in things, systems and the environment makes the technology stays in the background and is hardly noticeable.

The vision of ubiquitous computing

It was in the early nineties developed Mark Weiser, the computer scientists at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in California, developing his pioneering vision for ubiquitous computing – as in people’s everyday environment ever-present and easily accessible information infrastructure and communications. It is only now, fifteen years later, as the technology reached the point that ubiquitous computing may gradually start to become reality.

Mark Weiser is ubicomp-founder of development. It is Weisers visions and ideas over the past decade have influenced and shaped much of the extensive research and development underway in the U.S., Japan and Europe. According to Weiser can one speak of ubiquitous computing where the following four criteria are met:

• Microcomputers are built into the physical objects of all kinds and sizes – and performing duties such as might previously made with the support of PC or not at all because the computer technology which did not fit financially or technically.

• Typically these embedded / built-in digital systems is that they are small to size and the outside does not make any noise.

• Built-in microcomputers expands (strengthens, accrue, expand) the object

(Apparatus, system) utility or usefulness to the user  through a set of digitally-based functions.

• If necessary, object to communicate digitally with the world (second objects, databases or people) to get or give information. Natural objects, normally “dead” objects, thus become natural members of the a borderless digital communicating world. Things can start communicating, talk to the outside world, talk about how they feel, be talked to, download what they can need to work … either by being driven by the user or of circumstances in the outside world, of the situation they are currently is in.

This “ubiquitous” access to various services lies in communication between the device and application and its databases – not the device itself. It is precisely this that distinguishes ubiquitous computing from the mobile network that we use today.

It is characteristic of ubiquitous computing is that the services – regardless of the technical platform they are – can be available everywhere, even when the user is mobile. The services can be adapted to all sorts of different devices in different sizes such as mobile phone, PDA and the future of universal terminal, a ubiquitous communicator.

Hard to sharply define what ubicomp is – and is not.

The question is whether it’s even possible to define what ubiquitous computing is all about – and what is not. It is difficult to find consensus on this subject among those who are involved in all the research and development going on.

It is easiest to imagine that ubiquitous computing represents a new paradigm – one dominant thought patterns – in data processing and how people can work and live together. There is a new paradigm for how based information and communication systems. But it is difficult, if at all possible or useful, to firmly and unequivocally determine the technical and application rate limits are ubiquitous computing. The area is unmanageable large, and growing. It reaches out in many directions.

While undergoing rapid change.

Some prominent features can however be traced in ubicomp applications that are being developed. Physical world can begin to be linked to the digital world. A key common feature in the new paradigm is that physical objects and locations can easily be linked electronically to the digital world. Earlier static objects and environments can be “smart”, first “live” and communicate with each other and with humans. Information on the physical material world can thus be used to reinforce and extend the human capacity to act, act and feel. In ubiquitous computing, the physical world – appliances, objects and environments around us – built-in “intelligence” or computer functionality with the intention to support and facilitate various human activities.

These digital objects are embedded in the physical world can be the technology of automatic radio frequency identification and different types of sensors that can sense and report conditions in the physical environment. There are two main routes of development.

Promise of personalized services for each user. Other dominant features in common in the ubicomp applications that researchers and developers are experimenting with is that these information systems based on

• Automatic identification of people and physical objects,

• to retrieve information from sensor networks to see, hear, measure and monitor events

and provides control signals to affect material objects and environments,

• be able to perceive a physical location, a location and to locate objects

• to deliver personalized services through knowledge of the user’s

preferences, past behavior (= habits) or the current situation (= context).

Comprehensive communication a prerequisite for ubicomp

One of the many prerequisites for ubiquitous computing is a very well-developed communications capabilities (“ubiquitous communication”), at both global and local levels. Above all, the infrastructure for a wireless mobile communication will need to be well developed and always accessible. In extension after the current third generation (3G) grows fourth generation communication systems 4G up. It is 4G, which is expected to give it more or less comprehensive communications environment without disturbing technical joints can provide

• all types of information and communications services,

• everywhere

• Always,

• to whom (or what) anything – people, machines, environments

• to the technical apparatus at any time.

Another prerequisite to speak of true ubiquitous computing is to next generation Internet (IPv6) should be widely disseminated. With its closest unlimited addressing capacity, high data security and opportunity for end-to-endtjänster (such as the current Internet is essentially no) you can simply connect the tangible physical world with the virtual computer world.

Huge potential – but also great challenges

It can lead to innovative applications that have so far not been technically or economically possible, or even existed in the imaginations.

There is a huge potential of ubiquitous computing.

While it is challenging to realize the solutions found in the visions that are key drivers of the ongoing research and development.

Ubiquitous computing will lead to highly complex technical systems, where traditional and known development means and methods are not enough. Many interdisciplinary areas need to work together to realize a well “ambience” as “intelligence”.

The strong development of microelectronics and communications technology allows now Weisers vision of ubiquitous computing within reach for realized – though the challenge is really big to succeed in creating secure and easy to use system that can be publicly available on a large scale. The development will take time. Early and relatively simple example of the ubiquitous computing is in transportation and material handling equipment that uses RF transponders on pallets, packages and containers to Easy reading products ID number and automatically be able to follow a product’s path through the distribution system. A similar use of radio frequency transponders are registering Toll facilities (such as congestion charges in Stockholm.)

It is therefore an open question what applications may be developed during the next 5-15 years. When ubiquitous computing was on the agenda of fifteen years ago, it was a first vision of the new paradigm. The vision is essentially still valid and govern the development efforts. Target status for iterated to become even more apparent and better according to the technological developments offer new opportunities.

An approach to ubiquitous computing (pervasive computing, ambient Intelligence AMI, etc.) is that so far consider it as a viable concept for the future, a vision, a gradually emerging phenomenon and not see it as a set of specified functions and features at any price will be realized.

What drives the ubiquitous computing?

Technology Trends

Advanced Microelectronics at low cost. A continued rapid miniaturization of micro-electronics and electro-mechanics is an important development to make ubiquitous computing possible. There is a continued exponential growth in capacity of computer components. It is accompanied by equally dramatic cost reductions. It leads to a massive proliferation of qualified digital technology in all possible contexts. Ubiquitous access to communications. The emergence of a ubiquitous access to communications, both globally and locally. Communication networks are particularly wireless. Cost decreases, bandwidth increases significantly, it is possible to constantly communicate even the most trivial things. This ubiquitous connectivity means that computers and all devices that contain some form of digital technology can be plugged into networks, they can begin to communicate and work together afterwards. Material things and everyday objects become “smart”. Many common physical objects, objects and environments have built-in digital technology, computer capabilities, access to communications and / or sensors (which means that the object can see, hear, feel …) and / or smart radio tags (which means that the object can automatically identify digital). This leads to the physical environment will include a growing crowd of smart objects and places.

Technology in ubiquitous computing.

It is characteristic of ubiquitous computing is that computers are virtually everywhere, integrated into the everyday environment. They provide on-demand or proactively different types of services to people. The main technology of ubicomp will be

• highly reliable computer components of secure energy supplies and in various sizes, ranging from “smart dust” (mikrosmå sensors that could be spread out in quantity, establish contact and wireless reporting of events) to large displays that can present information to many

• wireless communications network that everywhere and always connects computers and other digital components

• intuitive user interface that allows all people in a natural and uninhibited way, spend time with computers, for example, through speech and gestures

• built-in intelligence (albeit far from the human form) that can manage communication with other computers and that use is as simple as possible for people.

Without the ubiquitous communication, no ubiquitous computing It’s mostly about wireless communications technology linking practically everything, all things: People (and not cell phones, computers and athletic ubicomp) technology, animals, objects, sets and locations (security cameras, food packaging, clothing, household appliances and machinery, cars, passports, books, wallets and so on without limit ) and organizations (hospitals, stores, inventories, border controls).

A central idea of ​​ubicomp environment is that wireless connections between the input system can be set up anywhere, anytime. The bandwidth is sufficient for real-time transfer large amounts of data, high-resolution images, moving images. All types of wireless networks – from cellular networks, satellite networks and local networks to the home network, personal network, athletic networks and sensor networks – should in a true ubicomp environment to exchange information freely.

One trend is that all communications coming years, converging towards Internet Protocol – all digital communications will be IP based. With next-generation Internet, IPv6, are almost endless addressing capacity (all material things on earth could be equipped with its own unique Internet address), high security and advanced options for end-to-end services, which are limited in today’s Internet.

To build all of this is not just a vision, it is a big challenge. To ubicomp to work on a large scale, high security requires ubiquitous communication. This means that there should be a universal coverage – mostly wireless – with high bandwidth.

It needs to be many communication nodes with such a high capacity so that multiple users can simultaneously use the desired services. An even bigger challenge is to create a communications environment with no annoying seams between different networks and devices.

Everything should be this – the best of worlds that might be unattainable – act as if it were a single unified infrastructure. Many researchers are not convinced that this will be at all possible. A further challenge is that there needs to be a large measure of security and privacy protection built in at all levels of communication networks.

New interface makes it easier for the user.

An intuitive, natural and comfortable user interface is a central feature of the ubicomp environments that are being developed. The user should not need to adapt to the computer, but rather the computer should welcome a natural and spontaneous behavior from the user (within reasonable limits, nota bene).

Of particular interest is to be able to use your voice, to speak to the system (not only with the single word of command, but with many words or phrases), or that the system interprets the user’s presence, understand the hand movements, gestures. Other types of systems, image processing what they see in a three-dimensional environment, such as a face or a turn of events. Traditional interfaces like keyboards, mice, etc. are not viable for a truly user-oriented ubicomp systems.

This is a major challenge for developers. The challenge is to create systems with high security can understand what many people (with countless different

expressions and behaviors) say or do about the system. A dilemma with such interfaces is when used in environments where other people can easily observe and listen to what is going on. It can lead to integrity problems.

Built-in intelligence.

Ubicomp researchers are working to build in some form of intelligence in ubicompsystemen (“embedded intelligence”), thus a way for a system to perform simple reasoning. (The use of intelligence-concept is perhaps somewhat casually, it’s usually on relatively primitive and predictable effect to be performed. Consider that what is called “intelligent” in the data connection is likely to be rather primitive and ignorant. Like the “smart” in reality means “still pretty stupid.” Instead of ambient intelligence, it would be better to speak of ambient Functionality, availability of different types of computer functionality in the environment).

With such built-in intelligence, the system can recognize a certain (limited)

situation. It can look for matching data in various databases, see patterns, make simple decisions. It may combine different data into a new information. It can be based on a famous person’s profile to deliver a personalized service according to user preferences or needs. Or within reasonable limits automatically adjust to a situation that arises.

The system can therefore have an ability to understand what situation the user is currently located in a basis of the input that the system may be. From this, the system is able to draw conclusions about what is reasonable and proper to do in the current situation. Should the system presents proactive suggestions to the user?

Or should it act independently on the user’s behalf such as sending a message to someone, get some information that the user seems to need or just adjust the room lighting?

To do this, the system must have learned something about the user, his preferences, behaviors and habits. First, the user has to initially secure itself registered some of their own wants and needs, then put into their personal profile. Second – and perhaps above all – are observing the system user’s behavior continuously and accumulate data for future use.

There may be information coming from different kinds of sensors in the environment.

This makes the system reasonably over time, becoming better able to deliver personalized services to the user. The system adapts to the user – is adaptive – and it might also be proactive in any form, ie that the system can proactively take action without the user’s conscious need to control and set of technologies.

Sensors and Actuators.

In many of the ubicomp systems developed used sensors (detectors, sensors, cameras, etc.) of various kinds to give the system the ability to see, hear, record – to perceive their environment, situation. You may want to establish a position in geography or a council position in space, a biometric authentication, follow different physiological processes or to measure health parameters. For all this, there are sensors that are becoming smaller, more energy efficient and cheaper, for example under the “natural laws” that govern the micro-electronics development.

It leads towards the mass deployment of sensors in the ubiquitous “spirit”. Sensors can be of many types. Is it to get the coordinates of a location or a vehicle used in the satellite-based global positioning system GPS, as long as it is outdoors.

If you want to determine an exact location indoors, you can use ultrasound systems or RFID technology, for example, was in the room a person is at the moment, if he stands, sits, or has fallen on the floor. Integrity risk may be in fact be somewhere that location information be obtained and where it becomes available, it is locally or elsewhere. Similarly, the question is how the unique identities that are used on people, places and objects are released.

Biometric sensor technology developed further and will at some future date to be practically useful. What you are worried about can happen is identity theft, to someone uses another person’s biometric data for their own use. Scientists trying to solve this by adding the ability to determine whether it has biometrics sensor looks really “live” here and now and not just a “dead” data set.

Among all the physiological sensors that are developed, there are those who can detect a user’s emotional state. Possibly it is controversial or risky for a computer to reveal a person’s true emotional state, something that would otherwise go to mask with a neutral or feigned countenance. But this is probably far in the future.

More central to the development of sensors for physiological measurements and monitoring of health is such that continuous on (and in) the body can monitor pulse, blood pressure, temperature, bacterial presence, and more. Some types of sensors and radio-based identification markings are likely to be implanted in the body. Body Near ubicomp systems can continuously analyze health status and compile results. It can detect an impending flu or a heart condition – and if necessary send data to healthcare providers.

Other types of sensors can be used in ubicomp-equipped vehicles, for example, to detect the distance to the car, see the obstacles and warn in time, to know about roadway is slippery, reading road signs or measure whether the driver is drunk, tired or sick.

The vehicle is also central to constantly feel the vehicle’s position and the development of ubicomp applications, even for that. It is mainly the availability of different types of sensor technologies that will drive such developments. If the sensors provide input to ubicomp systems, are also components an international dimension through the output that the system provides. If the sensors are invisible in the background, so there are also lots of subtle utmatningsorgan embedded in the environment.

It can be electromechanical actuators, locks, taps, switches, whatsoever things differently activate or regulate any of the physical world. For example, it can apply to switch on and off various appliances at home or at work, regulate the lighting of the situation, unlock the door for the approaching and have permission – or in more advanced cases automatically dispense and give drugs to a person on order from ubicomp system.

Three particularly important technologies in the wings pushing ubicomp.

The phenomenon of ubiquitous computing is structurally inherent in most of all the digital technology that now developed. In addition, it will be three techniques that seem to want to be involved in virtually all contexts – they’re made to fit in ubiquitous computing. It is

1st RFID (“smart radio tags” for automatic digital identification);

2nd wireless ultra-wideband UWB and

3rd next-generation Internet IPv6.

All three are truly ubiquitous high-potentials, ambitions. What “wish” of these three techniques? As they open up possibilities? What potential do they have?

1st RFID, smart radio tags provide everything digital identity A key feature of ubiquitous computing is the technology for RF identification, RFID, which uses radio waves to identify the digital material things of all kinds, places, people, etc.

There is little passive or active radio transponder – smart radio tags “- in varying size depending on how they are used. The passive is in the form of small thin labels, the active is a major self-powered. Already there are millions of copies in use, particularly for data acquisition in the transport and logistics.

The technology itself has been around a long time. Already fifty years ago, the first applications. But it is not until now – and especially the future – as RFIDtekniken can go into mass circulation, in all sorts of different contexts.

The key is that an RFID tag (smart radio tag) can be very small (a human hair), invisible and easy to place anywhere and on anything. They will be printed on paper or woven into the fabric. An RFID tag is soon very cheap and will remain cheaper. This means that it increasingly will be economical to put RFID tags or transponders on practically everything … shoes, lamp posts, cars, car parts, computers, books, doors, medicine packaging, driver’s license, cell phones, food, patients, children, etc. .

This would give them their unique digital identities that is wirelessly communicable with information systems in the world. What is RFID-labeled automatically become part of an information system that can be local and limited – or how large and extensive as anywhere.

It is possible to real-time monitor and locate RFID-tagged items, see where they are and what they are up to. It is possible to sort things such as luggage or books.

RFID-tagged objects or people can identify themselves once they get into a certain environment, an RFID-labeled packet received by the distribution terminal can tell you that it has arrived and automatically initiate all the measures necessary for the goods to come Furthermore, to address general.

RFID (and other new emerging technologies for digital identification) is therefore a very useful and universal technology that will greatly drive the development of ubiquitous computing. RFID technology can eventually get into virtually anywhere and be a natural part of everything, in all things. It is part of the vision of Internet of things (to compare with today’s internet of data or the Internet of People), which means that the network incorporated a rapidly growing number of physical objects, machines, locations, etc. – who can soon be counted in millions, billions – as with their digital identities thus can communicate with the outside world.

RFID technology will be prominent in the first wave of the actual spread of ubiquitous computing. Notably, RFID will shortly be in general use smart cards and all sorts of consumer products including cell phones.

2nd Ultra Broadband provides wireless communications like never before

In the case of wireless communications is the next step after the current WiFi and

Bluetooth standard a technology called UWB ultra wideband. It is a technology with low power can transfer data over short distances as fast as 100-2000 Mbps, extreme bandwidth, many times faster and safer than today’s wireless technologies for local communication and for links to the global networks.

This means that it is practically possible to create local communication environments where everything literally can “swim” in the wireless broadband connectivity – ideal for ubicomp applications that will benefit greatly when UWB is widely available.

UWB is super fast. It inhibits any data flow that today we can imagine need. It is able to carry multiple bitstreams with such high-resolution video, that can handle multiple TV shows in the same house. It is easy enough to deal with so-called ad-hoc mesh networking, that is fine-mesh networks. Ad-hoc networks are communication that comes about spontaneously with the nodes that are currently available. It may be, for example, a network of sensors for monitoring at a particular location. Each node in this local area networks can dynamically transfer data to any neighbor who can offer the quickest access route out of the overall network at the moment. In this way create an arrangement that is self-configuring, self-repairing and resilient to shocks is an ideal network environment for ubicomp.

A simple observation is that the wireless ultra-wideband will forever make it possible to, among other things eliminate the hitherto growing tangle of wires all of which need to connect all electronic devices at home, office or factory. With UWB you connect large screens, set-top boxes, speakers, television receivers, video recorders, computers, digital cameras, smart phones, etc. – no cables, everything communicates. The network builds itself. Just by being present in the room (or nearby) looking for wireless devices connect with each other, identify themselves to each other and begin to communicate – and the network is in operation.

Ultra-Wideband transmits not only data with super high speed and with very low power. This technique can also specify the position with high precision, so it is possible to locate and track objects through the web. It is a feature that significantly extends the usability. This means that it is becoming possible and safe to locate people and objects indoors where the GPS does not work. Low power, simple design makes UWB a very attractive candidate in future ubicomp applications.

With ultra-wideband, UWB, thus opening up many new opportunities for ubiquitous computing. This new wireless technology is literally crying out for to become the dominant medium for all self-identifying objects, sets and locations will use to communicate, conduct transactions and be able to do it in network configurations that continuously adapts to the needs and situation.

3rd IPv6, the next generation internet, open the “Internet of things”.  A new and improved internet access will be needed for ubiquitous computing will fully operational.

One obstacle to the development of ubicomp so far in a more widespread scale of global level is that the IP addressing scheme in the current Internet, (known as IPv4), is limited (although it can handle one billion users). It will soon be exhausted on the job of IP addresses, perhaps within five years. In each case you can not handle a future onslaught from various ubicomp applications where all sorts of physical objects need to communicate.

A further development, next generation Internet (IPng, Internet Next Generation) has been prepared for several years. In the scenes there is a new Internet protocol, IPv6, yet partially implemented including the U.S. military in Japan.

IPv6 provides – among many other things essential to performance enhancing aspects – an enormous expansion in terms of available IP addresses. Figuratively speaking, everything on this earth to have its own unique IP address, or more – and yet there are plenty of additional IP addresses if anyone needs. With IPv6, every person, place, objects have their own unique addresses.

This means that all physical objects can become part of the Internet. They become addressable, digitally reachable. IPv6 allows for a comprehensive introduction of the so-called end-to-end based services and any / everything can have its own unique public address. A light bulb, a book, a pen will be communicable via internet. Several billion gadgets, appliances, gadgets, machines around the world can begin to keep in touch and talk to each other.

IPv6 will be needed because

• IPv6 enables a huge number of new machines and technical devices can be plugged into a worldwide infrastructure for digital communications. In As the number of connected things is increasing, facilitated a) people’s need for easily and in different ways to communicate and 2) the replacement of all major data volumes. With the current IPv4, this will not be possible. Therefore IPv6 will be necessary.

• Need to re-establish an end-to-end Internet and to get away from a false sense of security. It is also needed to give everyone a chance to be continuously connected to the network and thus be included in a ubicomp environment.

• IPv6 is also necessary to cope with the continued growth of the existing network services, and development of new services and applications. The growing economies in countries with many people, such as China and India, creates a new set of consumers who demand mobile and Internet-based services such as information, communication and entertainment. Current

IPv4 can not long satisfy future needs.

The great potential of IPv6, the promise that technology exhibits, is to do everything in

world, until every part of every thing, to a node / node in the global network so that everything can in principle communicate and collaborate digitally.

But it costs. The question is who will pay. Therefore, it is an open question at what rate that IPv6 – which has been “just around the corner” for years – will be established so that its revolutionary resources are widely available across the world. It can be a patience trying waiting for IPv6 to be among us and be open to innovative applications of ubiquitous computing. The rate at which IPv6 will be introduced is difficult to predict. There are many application ideas and needs – for example, for mobile Internet communications – which would have IPv6 capability.

But as long as there are users who are willing to pay the bill, it is uncertain when a breakthrough comes.

What slowed the progression?

It also requires much further development and standardization of such wireless communications to build well-functioning ubicomp systems.

The most visionary ideas about ubicomp based and requires a natural access to a virtually universal broadband communications. Everywhere. But this much-needed network infrastructure does not exist in full, but very limited places. An upcoming technology WiMax – which provides small-meshed wireless networks – can potentially be a solution. But you can not solve the infrastructure challenges, so will ubicomp (which really is “Ubiquitous”) only to be realized in some limited places. Many of these sites can be quite large, as large companies, student environments, neighborhoods. Since it may take time before the rest of the population (even in far developed countries) may be part of a similar development. The needs will vary, even if the infrastructure would be resolved fully. Therefore, it can reasonably be done to extend the ubicomp applications are broadly disseminated and used throughout society.

Then of course, is the question: how does one describe the ubicomp systems to be built?

In conventional computer systems are methods and tools to make a clear specification and modeling. But the development of a more adult ubicomp systems, work is quickly complicated and difficult to grasp. There is as yet – despite all the research and development in ubicomp – few conventions, uniform design rules and limited experience of how such systems will be built on an industrial way and large scale so that it can bring out in reality. It has mostly been built so far, relatively small-scale, limited transparent systems, small and homogeneous. An assessment is that ubicomputvecklingen, application rate, is about the same as the Internet and the Web in the mid-nineties. Since then, the Web in its first generation developed very rapidly and matured. It will also ubicomp to do, as it comes out on the market, becoming commercialized and spread in different places. As it will be placed higher demands on consistency, reliability and security. But it is a development that has barely started.

Is ubicomp appealing and clear to potential users?

Another obstacle in ubicomp-development is that we, as potential users yet not received any appealing or clearly offer the benefits and advantages as ubicomp can deliver.

Especially the last five years there has been an escalating activity at ubicompområdet; many major R & D projects in Europe, USA and Japan, conferences, media attention, pilot projects and efforts to introduce limited systems in different environments. Even so, it hardly to find a significant demand from a sufficient portion of the future users. Places where reasonably developed ubicomp environments in the early versions can be seen in newly demarcated communities in countries such as Singapore and Korea, where the expansion occurred through massive central investment. In ubicomp industry, there are plenty of case studies of ubicomp, so that almost ignores the question whether these have any bearing on any other

outside the industry. The potential use of ubicomp – with user benefits and advantages, often appear to be “obvious” to all those futuristic scenarios that many researchers and developers like to work for. Just how entrenched they are in genuine user needs will show when ubicomp systems will eventually meet market users. A fairly common scenario is that “You go into [the meeting room, living room, museum hall, hospital, hotel room, etc.] and the context-sensitive ubicomp system recognizes you [by RFIDtagg, face or on your conduct] and [light, music, screen, work, work material, temperature, flow of information, etc] to set up in all respects to suit your preferences. Your new sleeping communicated to the [room, building, your colleagues / friends, etc] and your [video, favorite TV programs, working papers, calendar, breakfast, etc] is automatically started. And so on. ”

There is a light science fiction-esteem in such scenarios. Probably no systems to function so once they are ready. Nor need this be what people in general really need in any given situation. But it is the type of applications, many researchers are experimenting with the wide projects with huge budgets in the EU, the U.S. and Japan. What applications become viable is an open question.

Major challenges to developing full-scale ubicomp

The vision of ubiquitous computing is now just as challenging as it was in the early nineties. The technology has developed very rapidly and continues to develop. It has also emerged a truly ubiquitous information infrastructure and communications with very high capacity.

Hardware-wise, progress has been great. But important parts of the technology for a “full grown” ubicomp yet to develop. They will require significant effort and take time:

• In essence, there is no software to get ubicomp work reliable large-scale outside R & D laboratories.

• It is difficult to develop truly user-centric systems.

• The need for effective solutions to the energy supply of any additional mobile and autonomous technologies that will be needed in ubicomp systems.

• There are no solutions to provide a wireless connectivity works reliable on a large scale over all things to all people.

Where will ubicomp be?

Ubicomp establishes itself on the human body.

Ubicomp come to a deal to establish itself in the human body.

We will figuratively and literally be able to dress us all the personal technology needed to manage information, communication and various different mobile services. The technology is connected to a body near the computer network (Body Area Network BAN).

Everything is integrated in the clothes so that we no longer need to bear in solving sets of pockets, purses or hands. The athletic system can monitor, collect and update information about the things going on in our immediate vicinity, no matter where we are or how we move. It can be used to remotely control and monitor various functions, for information, services, and to communicate with the outside world. It can interact with ubicomp systems home, office or car. A person dressed in this athletic data network surrounds itself with a “digital aura”. The personal body network can have many different shapes and forms depending on individual needs and interests. In any case, it will mean that the individual with their presence serves as a mobile digital node or focal point of the large communications network.

Ubicomp surrounds us in the room

Ubicomp will be available in various forms in the locations where we humans often find ourselves: in the home, at work, in the hotel room, restaurant, shop, gym. In these different spaces, ubicomp technology be built into the walls, doors, furniture, floors, shelves, lights, everywhere in the neighborhood.

An idea of ​​a ubicomp system is to provide various personal customized information and communication services. Then it is necessary and able to identify the person digitally, and also know the location of and hence what the person is likely to engage in – if he is on his office, living room, in the car, on the street, on a trip or at the gym will determine what kind of services that may be present in every situation. This is context-aware computing, ie the services in any way tailored to the current context, situation, which the user is in. It is likely that this will be achieved by man in the room built into sensors that detect the presence of a human , which also carries his digital identity. We now know ubicompsystemet was somewhere in the room, in the world, which NN are. This simple information can, not least, be made available if desired in other parts of the global network.

Doors are equipped with sensors and electromechanical locks that are part of ubicomp system. Thus it is possible to digitally communicate to the world about doors are open, closed or locked. Everything is possible to remotely control, remote monitoring. He who comes to a gate with an authorized digital identity can unlock and pass through the door. The system can keep track of how many, what and when, passing in and out, and so on.

On the walls, there may be high-resolution displays – both very large and several small ones – which presents the information of all kinds. Home used screens for video, television, videophone, bulletin board, Internet readers. On office can be different screens used also for meetings at a distance – meetings that can be implemented in three-dimensional virtual environment with computer-assisted facilitation.

Screens are used as graphical workspaces to manage information in a natural and convenient way. Maybe it will in some place that even be active wallpaper, which by ubicomp system can provide information, such as by changing color depending on who is where or what is going on in the room, if the stock market falls, or if the local weather forecast promised sunshine the next day.

Ubicomp offers houses that communicate

The trend to create intelligent buildings, smart homes, has been on the road for several decades. Certainly not succeed very well. It has gradually come to focus on to build computer systems for managing security, energy, heating, ventilation, lighting, broadband communications. It continues to a significant extent by the technology becomes more accessible.

What will the new buildings, by the proliferation of ubiquitous computing, may stop information or communicating walls – inside building and on the facade. Here, for example, visitors to inform themselves, interact with the building information systems to find the right department at hospital or have specific knowledge of company products and services.

The building communicate and adapt to the situation, for example by digitally identify an expected individual or group of visitors to be able to present relevant information or services on the walls. In this way, a building change character depending on what kind of activities in progress.

Ubicomp in public places

Ubiquitous computing is expected to be a growing use of public spaces, streets, squares, shopping centers, roads. A key requirement in humans is to orient themselves in such environments. That I – with the support of the surrounding Information system – can know where I am. How am I going to a specified address? How far is it? Go, take a taxi or subway? Where I can find a store that sells what I need right now? Where is the nearest pharmacy, bus or some restaurant? Etc..

It may be in the street and the business environment be intelligent adaptive information and marker boards or terminals to consult. Alternatively, people use their universal mobile communicators to get just the information or service they need in a particular situation. This helps people to quickly and seamlessly get where they want and find what they need.

It is especially useful when there are many people coming together in an environment, such as for big events like a trade show or a music festival with many activities.

Then the ad-hoc arrange with the portable information screens that continuously provides current information and guidance to the participants. It is also possible that with ubicomp technologies verify identity and a valid ticket in all of football crowd (which can be “self-identified”).

Ubicomp 2007 in Tokyo’s business district Ginza. With mobile or personal ubiquitous communicator, consumers and tourists to use different local information available in the environment. Example: The Searchable information on the range of shops, department stores, restaurants, theaters. Spoken or graphical navigation aid to go to the desired article. Business offers customer offers to passersby in their mobiles on the basis of customers’ preferences.

Navigation Support for various basic facilities in the area. Tourism and sightseeing information in multiple languages. Multimedia evacuation information currently mobiles at immediate risk, eg fire in a department store. All services are available in different languages, including adaptations for disabled people who also have electronic navigation aid to move around freely in the environment.

Theater Reviews ticket. This was the content of an extensive field tests that took place during two months in 2007 and it may be classified as state-of-the-art for ubicomp in this application domain.

How will ubicomp to apply?

Many ideas for potential applications. Ubiquitous computing has many potential applications in terms of ideas, as in health care, environmental monitoring, at home, in trade, in transport and for people with increasingly mobile and flexible lifestyles.

Within these – and many others – areas, extensive R & D projects in Europe,

Japan and the United States with high ambitions to the completion of concrete applications very soon – the sights are often set to soon launch “around the corner” – although it has so far proved it is the destination images for projects from sliding forward in small steps. It is not as fast as it can sometimes be led to believe. It has taken thirty years such as smart cards to come to some use and are essentially left for this technique to obtain widespread use.

Much of ubicomp development is truly a vision-driven – as opposed to the most other things in data and telecommunications development which is traditionally based on the gradually improve the results achieved – and one can sometimes wonder how realistic many of these visions are, at least in 50-10 years time.

One difficulty in ubicomp-R is necessary to evaluate and predict the applications which will be the most central and sought after. Researchers and developers are experimenting because with so many different applications and trial and error. For the first time in the history of the computer is not the choice of immediate interest as a given. There is still little to fall back on the development principles and practices, no one familiar with prototyping, etc. as there are long standing in the traditional computing and telecommunications world.

Is it possible to solve the data ubicomp developed to address? Will there be a demand? Will applications that meet real and pressing needs? What applications are challenging enough for them to be developed? Will ubicomp pay off? Who pays? Will issues privacy, data security and environmental risks (the amount of electronic waste and energy consumption will increase dramatically by ubicomp) to get satisfactory solutions? There are many questions to straighten out before ubicomptillämpningar become widespread and available in attractive premises.

Applications in the home, assistance to live “The smart home” Much of the development of ubicomp applications are focused on the domestic environment, to provide for the “smart home”, “smart home”. Is thoroughly smart home takes unlikely. The home environment, and life there, namely represents a very complex system. It is not entirely trivial to build systems that in various ways assist in the daily life. The technology for this is still in its infancy. It is not yet mature enough that it works well enough and certainly outside the development lab. Where there are functional subsystems of the home, the price is too high for the ordinary consumer and home owners. So far, the technology that drives development, not the consumer’s expressed needs and desires. The added value for the consumer to the smart home lies in the perceived usefulness, not in the “intelligence”. The consumer has basic needs that revolve around labor savings and simplification of everyday life, ease of use, remote, entertainment, cost reductions. Should the ubicomp-based “smart home” to succeed, suppliers Address the needs and demonstrate the added value of functional and subjective utilities. It remains to be seen in the future.

What in the foreseeable future may come is the possibility of building such as wireless networks at home for connecting consumer electronics, computers and telephones. You can easily create their own such as alarm and security systems: A house can be equipped with a wireless network of small security cameras and sensors that together will see if anything happens at home that the homeowner would like to be informed, for example, if someone walks through a door . Smart electricity and water meters can be read automatically by the supplier starts to come into use.

What we are waiting for is the system for example can provide meaningful information to consumer (current expense rather than kilowatt-hour) and with opportunities for detailed analysis of how energy is used. The basic technology exists. But the introduction is delayed because the standards are not available.

A clear target for the development of various ubicomp systems in housing is disabled and elderly who need support for different types of daily activities for increased comfort and safety.

The scenarios for the intelligent home, anything is possible … If you study all the different scenarios that researchers and developers work to create ubicomp systems applied in the home are some commonalities:

Ubiquitous computing or ambient intelligence can be used to

• facilitate all types of electronic communication between people, both among those who live in the home and to those who are outside. It can apply to plan something together, to exchange factual information where an address is located geographically, to communicate for pleasure, to share their private photos to someone else, to greet guests to home or to keep uninvited doorstep. The most central functionality of a ubicomp-based communication in the home is focused on supporting the right communication with family members, friends and family, then those of the immediate circle. The focus of the smart home communication can be expected to be at most private communication and it leads to a ubicomp system must surely be manage personal information and relationships in large quantities.

• provide a personalized access to external information of many different kind. This means that users do not either have to search / retrieve information or to containing information pouring over him, but could just the desired type of information presented to them in an accessible and stress-free manner.

• Provide reminders of all kinds of upcoming events, contracts, what you should bring, what shoes you should take to it will rain on a pra hours, what foods you buy, how to brush your teeth properly way, how to cook … including reminders to drink a little less or to let a little friendlier on the phone. There is no end to all the – sometimes surprisingly unusual – features and functions that researchers and developers experimenting and working to build the homes future ubicomp environment.

• get help to find personal belongings, such as buried toys, Keys, a book on the bookshelf.

• be able to direct and control all possible appliances, machinery and installations in the home (everything from light bulbs, refrigerators and washing machines for heating, ventilation and automatic doors with access control). Eventually, it might ubicomp systems that may keep track of all things in the home (such as clothes, keys, food) … all to facilitate various activities at home and to be able to remotely control and monitor your home while you are absent.

• increase the safety and security at home by being able to keep track of where

family members, pets and things are, by various ways reduce the risk of accidents (such as smoke, fire, water, burglary) at home, and when emergencies quickly disarm the right help, and to manage a safe access control at all doors … who is it who comes to the door, get this person being here, what he may do this … In short, “friend or enemy? ”

• provide an advanced media consumption (eg, to sum up television programs, provide

access to various games) and to generally increase the convenience and comfort of home.

Applications for jobs

Ubicomp can contribute to increasing greater flexibility of work. Information and communication technologies are increasingly changing conditions in the workplace. Demands are increasing for more flexible working arrangements and organization, ability to handle large amounts of information and generally to do more in a faster tempo.

Employees are more mobile and work daily in several locations, in company or outside in varying environments. Working hours are more flexible, to be constantly accessible is important. Work Content characterized by projects, many working on several projects simultaneously, project teams often switch. People are switching clients more often. Many people have found a new independence in the labor market, they can have multiple clients simultaneously.

Some reasons for these ongoing changes is globalization, outsourcing and a general boost to innovation in different industries.

The development of ubiquitous computing will henceforth contribute to a growing greater flexibility of work by

• streamline everyday tasks easier through an “intelligent office”

• Support the work of the group

• freeing employees from the physical workplace, being able to work mobile.

Ubicomp applications in the workplace can gradually come to fruition earlier than for example in the home by at work are other economic conditions. Some of the scenarios that drive the development is already on track to be included in such companies and hospitals that choose to be on the forefront of developments.

Develops communication between people

Among the ideas that the application is for ubicomp in different environments is to provide support

• an improved communication between people, and among employees internally in the office environment and with people who temporarily find themselves outside the physical workplace, and with others outside the company as it have reason to communicate with. Communication can be both work-related or private. Commonly used in the scenarios are video communication between colleagues, in particular a continuous imaging to wall screens that give participants a sense of presence regardless of the physical distance between the parties. Many ubicompprojekt includes technology to support and facilitating physical meetings between people. Other, more future-oriented projects see virtual meetings as the dominant way to cooperate.

• employees who are highly mobile, such as providing the opportunity to work from

anywhere at any time, whether it be from home, on traveling or on leave.

• that employees should have direct access to work-related information when any time and from any location to create better knowledge management and cooperation.

• access to better facilities in the job, such as simulators for various business processes in the enterprise, systems to manage all documents and to regularly produce multimedia protocol during meetings and conferences.

• to direct and control various appliances in the office environment, such as projectors and monitors, heating, ventilation, lighting, etc..

• to improve safety depending on the demands of

activities. The whole office environment can be developed into a smart space. In the

ubicomp environment, you can keep track of the people moving there, communicate with them and also remember what they do, done and working with.

• to automatically provide reminders about meetings, events, etc. and to keep plans and calendars updated.

• to provide even more company-specific services to diagnose the specific equipment used, dynamic pricing of goods and services depend on supply and demand, manage inventory, etc..

The “intelligent office” that takes care of routine tasks and to keep orde.

The vision of the Intelligent Office is about to let technology take care of various routine tasks, so that employees can engage in more qualifying items.

There are prototype systems among other things, recognize employee when he arrives in his room, notify colleagues about the presence, adjust lighting and climate for personal preferences, enable the smart coffee machine and presents automatically the latest email on the wall screen, sorted by project and priority. Computers that individual devices will disappear from the desktop and provides space for various smart objects and devices, such as coffee machine that thinks for itself.

Other data in the smart office is help through electronic identification to keep track of all the analog work material. It is natural paper documents, books, CDs, all types of objects, and so on. Such documents and items supplied generally with barcodes, or RFID smart labels so that documents is possible to quickly retrieve and manage. Ideas are about to create office systems that are largely lacks the classic interface as the keyboard and monitor. The trend is that the interaction with ubicompsystem occurs in a natural and intuitive way, as speech control, gestures, etc.

The output is done on electronic paper. Thus, one can dictate, speak directly to paper. With the speech control you can give orders to the system of “ring-NN”, “write to NN “, etc..

There is developing ideas for building interactive workroom, where you can communicate with ubicomp systems and with Nokia and free dictation, and with hand movements and gestures that are perceived by cameras and sensors in the room.

To be able to handle a large flow of information and have the order of all documents, including all emails, software-based agents can be used. In the background takes care of such agents to incoming information (email, phone calls, documents, etc.) through the filter, sort, organize and prioritize.

There is a development of ubicomp systems designed to take care of some of the traditional secretarial work. Such a “virtual assistant” can independently leave messages by phone, answer an incoming call, send an email, manage appointments and to produce documents and prepare files for pre-defined criteria. This virtual secretary will be present for the needs of the employee’s screen – whether it be in the office or anywhere else – in the form of an avatar (a visual simulated figure) which you can communicate with and receive specified services.

Computer-aided group work

Interactive furniture, smart furniture, is a development that could lead to new ways of working meetings and team collaboration. There are interactive tables, chairs, doors and walls. The technology recognizes the employee as soon as he sits in his chair and approaching an interactive wall to work. In the tables and walls are large, generous interactive plasma screens. These can be orderly and engaging presentation of information such as images, text, graphics, animations. This information can be manipulated by touching the screen, hand gestures, voice or pen. A great interactive meeting table to gather around a horizontal interactive plasma screen as a common workspace.

All these devices and interactive furniture in the office is in constant wireless communicate with each other and with the Internet. They are all battery powered. Therefore, they can freely move, taken with or replaced as needed. This allows virtual organizations and changing project teams always have the optimum benefit of ubicomp technology.

Ambient Agora called future ubicomp applications that are designed to actively support the work-related processes within a company. At the same time also developed an informal communication between employees and clarifies the ongoing information related to the common work to do.

There are interactive systems which can communicate and interact with various mobile devices and sensor fitted objects coming near.

Videoconferencing technology is developing, not least because of cheaper and increasingly plasma screens, which subsequently will be able to cover the entire office walls. The video is combined with the increasingly common work on documents. The next step in this development is virtual conferences with avatars (avatar = a computer-generated persona that represents a human being). This means that Conference between geographically dispersed participants are in a computer-generated three-dimensional work (augmenterad virtual work environment) that are common to screens of all participants via the Internet. In this virtual environment is represented each member of his avatar. Information exchange is done with multimedia call, text, images, video, graphics, simulations, etc.. Here you can do to facilitate computer presentations, exchange information, discuss, negotiate contracts.

Mobile conferencing can be implemented by the participants’ athletic system that they always carry themselves. In such a private system, there may be functionality to support real-time communication in other languages.

Mobile work with ubicomp

Demands for increased mobility in many jobs. Mobile phones and laptop computers communicating is one step in a much better technology support for mobile and nomadic work. The development provides retrospective access to advanced handheld computers and smart phones with great functionality and capacity. A range of mobile devices for data processing and communications are developed to optimally fit different types of jobs.

Some technologies can be integrated into the user’s clothing to give a high freedom of movement. A construction worker may for example have technology fully integrated into protective helmet for hands-free. For the mobile office work, it is important to have fast data communications to the Internet and to all the company’s information resources, for example, to directly access the working documents.

Employees may, in the workplace be a radio frequency identification method, a smart radio tag (RFID) of any kind. This means that employee at all times be identified automatically when necessary, for example, to get access to the workplace, to gain access to documents and other resources or to identify themselves when communicating and relating to business meetings.

The identification is done without manual intervention once the employee is close to an RFID reader. The system is constantly changing as needed by all

components are in wireless connection to the host computer. If you want a period to have restrictions in the availability of a project room can be provided by simply moving there a wireless communicating RFID readers and direct the system starts to work after the new conditions.

It is also possible to include monitoring in the workplace through scattered wireless video cameras and recording starts as soon as specific RFID-initiated events taking place. Who is here? Who will be here? Who gets to do what?

Who gets access to resource X? Such issues can be handled by ubicomp technology.

Applications in Health Care

Enter the State development area

One of the most pressing areas of ubicomp-use seems to be health care – the number of ongoing R & D projects to judge. Of particular attention may be focused on applications in the home support and care for the elderly and disabled people to enable them to live and live independently as far as possible.

When it comes to developing a more advanced IT support in healthcare is a dilemma:

• on the one hand, the activity of life and death to humans and to a  emergency situation it is important to have quick access to all relevant information,

• On the other hand is very sensitive personal information. It may not be accessible to anyone, anytime.

This is essential and central account (and not trivial to solve) that need to be taken in the development of ubicomp applications for health care. The functionality that may be present in the ubicomp systems developed for use in health care include

• ways to prevent diseases, such as by continuously monitoring of a person’s health and health-related behaviors (such as exercise, play and sports.) It can also be IT support to promote a healthy lifestyle with personal advice at the right time and scope. Health is already a wide field for future ubicomp by the interest in wellness, fitness and sports, diet, etc. It is not unlikely that it ever will be able to monitor their own health through on-line services related to the personal “Body network” (which can be integrated in eg gym clothes) to achieve a optimal development of their own fitness, strength, weight.

Ubicomptillämpningar can help give people better health consciousness and help with preventive self-care. There are also thoughts of personal ubicomp systems to provide projections of future disease by example gene analysis.

• treatment of diseases can be done with IT support, particularly short-term basic diseases – from diagnosis through video communications with care providers and a personal test lab that takes blood pressure, temperature, do urine tests, etc. to continue to deliver appropriate treatment and medication anytime and any time. The idea is that the patient should not have to seek medical attention for minor diseases but can cure themselves at a distance. Later, it might ubicomp systems that can automatically make the diagnosis of acute disease states and also provide the necessary medication, eg heart trouble or epilepsy. In such cases also need continuous monitoring of the sufferer and it is done by sensors are attached to (and possibly) body reporting to a healthcare provider at a distance.

• provide care more long-term during rehabilitation in terms of facilitation support daily activities at home. The same applies to the elderly, disabled and chronically ill. These can for example involve continuous monitoring (by ubicomp) of both the physiological state of the person and by conditions in the home. All with a focus on the person to be survive as far as possible to live in the home in a convenient and secure way.

At the same time care provider’s task easier. For it to be operate safely, comfortably and well, there are many ideas about how ubiquitous computing technology can solve the needs to facilitate, monitor and security of daily life. Much research and development of ubicomp focuses on such solutions, particularly in Japan and in Europe. The done by over everything in the apartment building in computer functionality (which include

RFID tags and sensors) that follows what is going on. The system can detect abnormalities in the normal daily livsmönstret.Vid needs, it helps to recall when the medicine should be consumed or to find a placement thing.

• to provide an optimized alarm chain to save time in emergency medical conditions, such as for heart problems or accidents.

• to provide support for information gathering on diseases, treatments and medications, assistance in choosing health care providers, etc..

A significant part of ubicomp-applications for health care services anywhere, anytime, based on extensive use of embedded sensors on the patient and in his immediate vicinity.

Hospitals can use RFID technology for secure identification of patients, manage records, reduce the risk of medical errors and generally improve productivity.

There are examples of how large hospitals begin to provide all patients with a RFIDarmband.

There is the patient’s identity in digital form. Identity can always and everywhere in the hospital read without contact by the surrounding ubicomp systems. Doctors and nurses can in all situations wirelessly identify the patient. They may automatic access to medical records, test scores and other data from a database. Also the staff at the hospital wearing RFID so they can be located, they may controlled access to different sites and access to instruments, equipment and drugs.

Applications in trade

Ubicomp offer the promise of more efficient purchasing

Ubiquitous computing can be applied in various forms in the retail sector, such as in supermarkets. The idea is to create maximum customer oriented, efficient and effective environment in the store.

Among the features that ubicomp systems can provide in and around an intelligent supermarket for food is to

• the client is already receiving support at home to compile a shopping list based on what needs to be purchased for the household (the system can have an automatic check what’s missing in the refrigerator and pantry, or is about to run out). In addition, may customer suggestions for additional things that the shop has to offer, and that affair have long known that customers usually buy. The deal feels namely customer’s personal profile with preferences and purchasing patterns.

• in-store system gives the customer an active aid to navigation to quickly find and choose the goods to be purchased. All goods are already in production marked with the smart radio tags, RFID. The client communicates with system (and goods) with his personal communicator which also shopping list is, or more likely a smart cart with a screen. Here customer to provide details about each product (supplier, quality, content, durability, etc.), have suggested alternative products, make comparisons, get tips on additional supplies that may be needed to cook a complete meal, special offers, etc.. When the customer takes a package pasta, the system can simultaneously propose the purchase of parmesan cheese. The system can, if they so wish to suggest a healthy diet. The customer can also, if necessary, adjust their personal profile with the store for the future have an even better purchase proposal and personally arranged service.

• when the cart is filled, the customer can pass through the contactless reserve the site without having to pick up each item for payment. By products are RFID tagged, they are already automatically registered for the payment of when they put the cart (which also briefly going to follow on shopping cart screen). The operation was carried out in connection with the wagon crossing the reserve site and the customer’s account will be debited without further manual action from either the customer or store personnel.

By ubiquitous computing, it may be possible shop anywhere, at any anywhere – not necessarily by going to a shop to collect the goods. In several scenarios for the development of commerce are working on that – at the rate at which a effective and sustainable physical delivery systems are emerging – provide opportunities for where and at any time, ordering goods for home delivery with access to the same information and service that the customer would be physically present in the shop. A development approach to trade is ubiquitous commerce (u-commerce “).

The based on the particular capital goods, branded products, clothes, cars, furniture – and even ads, catalogs, TV programs – are labeled with RFID or other computer readable code, ie each object has its unique digital identity. Practically speaking, a potential customer address their personal communicator or cellular v such branded product. and get instant access to all conceivable multimedia information about the product. What does it cost? What quality is it? Is the stock? Etc.. Would you buy it, you can do it by phone. Same thing with the payment.

The whole process can take place largely by literally pointing to the product in question by phone. The business model for ubiquitous commerce means that the product does not even need be in a store to be sold. It can be displayed in a showroom, in a catalog or online.

The product (a chair, a car, a shirt, etc.) can also be produced by a good friend who may already own and use one copy. Would I buy one like I use to place my ubiquitous communicator to inform me and complete the transaction – and my friend can get the credit towards a small commission from the vendor.

A Japanese ubiquitous communicator “in the 2007 technical execution.

By pointing to the RFID-tagged medical packaging can verify it is correct medicine (and not a forgery), get detailed information about medicine from a database (to retrieve a Web page), get information about the prescribed dosage and times for medication or order a new package.

Applications in traffic and mobility

For convenience and safety in traffic

A very dynamic development area for ubiquitous computing is the traffic. There is extensive research and development in intelligent traffic systems for various types of traffic. The main objectives are to information and communications services to road users more comfortable and safer travel, whether travel is done individually by car or public transport by train, bus or plane.

Looking only at the car, it is interesting and suitable platform for ubicomptillämpningar.

The car is basically an autonomous mobile system with its own stable energy. The functionality that ubicomp of the plea offer, a good fit in the ever-mobile environment that the car represents.

Electronics that have so far been in the car is such as basic phone system, parking detector, navigation system and computerized engine management. Going forward, the car will be equipped with much more built-in “intelligence”. Although roads, streets and transport infrastructure in general, developed with various forms of ubicomp systems, including monitoring and controlling traffic flow and to increase safety.

The technology to accomplish much of the proposed ubicomp applications for cars available today at affordable costs. One inhibiting factor is the lack of uniform and generally accepted technical standards for how such systems should be built.

The car may be digital identity and internet address

Each vehicle can eventually be marked with the smart radio tags, thus having a transponder as standard. In this way, the car has a remote-readable identity. The car can thus be electronically identified without contact during refueling, parking, toll station, vehicle inspection, police, shops, dynamic billboards by the road, the road users, the traffic incidents, etc. The vehicle may also wireless communication capability and own internet address so that the information and mail to exchanged, for example, to retrieve a map. Although various parts of the vehicle may have their own Internet addresses, so that they can be monitored, controlled, regulated, or report their status.

The car’s information system can have independent contact with eg home or various service providers’ information systems. So, for example, maps, music and other information automatically distributed to the car and be available in the car’s systems.

Information roadmaps, mileage, insurance data, maintenance record, the status of various vehicle parts, etc. are also free to flow between the home and vehicle without special efforts.

Driver assistance by ubicomp

Intelligent systems in and around the car to help drivers deal with a stressful

traffic. The vision is a collision-free traffic. Such security systems can also temporarily take over control of the car. Driver assistance systems in cars could eventually become as important as ABS brakes and traction control. It will make car trips more comfortable and safer. A built-in map-based navigation system gives drivers information on the instrument panel on the routing, fixed speed limits, estimated travel times and the places and resources along the route. It may also be a vision system in your car that automatically scans for example, temporary road signs or dynamic speed signs. With such a passive reporting, the driver always latest information on the road.

With a more developed welfare schemes, the vehicle may also actively slow down the pacewould be well above the speed limit. With improved plate recognition can help system also actively enter at stop signs, rights of way, overtaking, red at traffic lights etc..

Similar ubicomp technology can be used in the car, for example, to intelligently control the headlights (automatic high and low beams), to warn of overtaking in lane changes, dead-spot-detectors, rear view camera and parking assistance systems, distance control. With night camera that the driver can see much better before him than the headlights are good at, being in darkness beside the road.

Smart airbags can adjust its operation to the type of person (big, little, children) placed in the seat. As ubicomp enters increasingly into the car, maybe following vision is not entirely impossible: You are running on the smart highway 130 and reads a book at the same time.

The car’s built-in ubicomp system monitors everything that happens around the car, as road information, relationship to other vehicles, etc.. There is an autopilot, which can be used in whole or in part. The system controls not only the engine but the whole car.

When it comes time to turn off the highway connecting you to manual execution of final destination. Impossible is not … All the technology for this already exist, you just have to develop the right systems to make it a reality.

Intelligent car in intelligent traffic

Surrounding an intelligent car of an intelligent traffic it may be possible

• to send local alerts to other road vehicles by

ad-hoc communications around an accident scene and these “virtual warning triangles “can be initiated either automatically or by the driver

• to obtain location dependent information services along the route, such as the local

broadcast advertising business, providing personalized offers to the driver of a car or RFIDidentifierad show personal messages on a screen.

• that between road users share all the beauty information while driving

• the vehicles in the vicinity act as relay stations for Internet

• to meet the dynamic momentum barrier that automatically rise from the roadway when a vehicle is approaching too fast

• provide intelligent traffic optimization by continuously information exchange and cooperation with all other vehicles in the neighborhood.

The development of a ubicomp system, which will be sensors on each vehicle on the road feel of the traffic situation (traffic lanes, stopping, slipping, etc.) and share information in real time to all other vehicles moving in town or on the road. is is a scheme to help road users to act together so that traffic flow will be optimal.

Social contact with other road. By ubicomp systems can road users – usually unknown to each other – which traveling the same road and start communicating with each other, instead of sitting screened in their vehicles.

A Swedish R & D projects in this theme is Hocman, a possible future service intended to facilitate and encourage social interaction between motorcycle riders on the road. A ubicomp systems provide opportunities for ad-hoc communication and information exchanges.

In principle, the same type of ubicomp systems used for automatic identification and spontaneous exchange between people in all kinds of mobile connection.

Applications of RFID will in all fields.

Play important roles for ubiquitous computing

Applications of RFID technology for radio frequency identification marking or identification,is the part of ubiquitous computing has rapidly come into the everyday lives of the most people. RFID technology has a bearing on most applications in ubicomp.

Systems for radio frequency identification is a key technology to bridge the gap between the physical and the virtual world.

Primary contains an RFID tag, a smart radio tag, the unique digital identity.

More is not needed in simple cases. This acts as a “pointer” to one or more databases, where it is possible to store or retrieve an unlimited amount of information in relation to the RFID-tagged item. A radio tag can be seen as “physical URL, a URL, where all data related to the label located somewhere in a database, much like a web page.

By having a small passive RFID tag (radio tag) on ​​a physical object, can object immediately identified as soon as it comes near an RFID reader – and so can, for example information on the object Automatically be available from any database. Although many simultaneous RFID-labeled objects – such as the contents of a shopping basket – you can read so that the information in an instant is inside the computer system. Some RFID tags contain not only a unique identity, but can also carry a limited amount of other data.

The reading is done without any physical contact or from a distance – how far depends on whether the tag is passive or active. The technology has been in use for quite some time. Now it matures (= become smaller, cheaper, more accessible, safer). It would likely lead to “ubiquitous RFID” – lots of new applications in different ways exploit this technology for automatic identification. The imagination is the limit for each RFID will be used.

Passive or active RFID transponders and other techniques for automatic reading of identity will play a key role in the development of ubiquitous computing. That way you can very easily link the physical objects and environments with digital information processing.

The proliferation of RFID systems depends primarily on factors such as price trends transponders of different types, the management of radiation risks and safety issues. Many innovative applications are made possible by the price of RFID tags – both passive to active of different designs – falls in line with production volumes.

Some examples of applications:

• The material handling and automated production lines in the industry – this is one of the earliest and most extensive uses of RFID.

• Storage Management, and to keep track of inventory in the office, samples in laboratories, warehouses, distribution centers, pallets and containers, books in


• Medical applications, eg to help a patient take his medicine at the right dose and at the right time.

• To identify and track people, for example, when entering the safety reasons, to match the profile participants in a conference so that those with shared interests can find each other, to mark births in the maternity ward of a safer and more secure handling.

• In manufacturing, RFID tags are used increasingly to manage the flow of input materials, parts and finished products shipped out and by the product’s unique ID tag serves as a key, it is then allow customers to access a wide range of information.

• Trade will increasingly ubiquitous use of RFID to keep track of their stocks – and be able to get snapshots of what is by all coming in and going out automatically recorded – and with active shelf / price labels.

• livestock – even wild animals – get RFID implants so that each animal has their digital identity and all the time to trace the location of the company and through additional sensors also what it eats, where it eats, how much such as dairy produce.

• Sport is using RFID tagging of such participation for runners automatic timing and performance management.

• Personal identification

• Identification of blood samples

• Environmental monitoring of noxious emissions.

• Parking Control

• Monitoring of the pigeons

• Identification of valuable property

• The identification of stolen vehicles

• ID badges and access control.

Ubiquitous RFID will also be used in

• of banknotes, passports and securities that protect against counterfeiting

• debit card in order for payment of a POS can take place without contact

• systems for patient safety, for example for the rational management of hospitals.

Being experimented with some very visionary applications, such example:

Smart kitchen. Suppose that all the products we buy at the grocery Marked RFIDetiketter (instead of the printed bar codes that so far there are at most). When you re-package the goods, fridge, freezer and pantry, view the computer system automatically and wirelessly to all that is available. On one screen, transparent information on what is available, where it says, suggested various dishes that can cook and an indication of what may be missing. Suggested dishes depends not only on what ingredients are sufficient, but also understands from personal preference – the chef’s identity lies in an RFID tag in the watch bracelet. For each item can be on the screen to obtain specific material specifications, etc.

Smart cards. At regular playing cards are invisible RFID labels printed. The cards

can thus communicate with a computer system in the vicinity and it is possible to monitor the game on a screen at the table. Here are recorded the results, winners and any attempt to fake games. Beginners can follow the game and understand what is happening and why. It works so that each card will remember the context in which it has been played and if it was successful or not.

Smart calendars. Calendars which are fitted with RFID tags. If two or more people agree on a meeting, they add their diaries on a digital “conference table” that can read identities. On a screen displayed the dates are possible for all involved.

Smart toolkit. Each tool is marked with a smart radio tag and hence has a unique identity. The toolbox contains a mobile RFID tracker.

This means that the toolbox will warn if the artisan is about to leave the premises without having all the tools in the toolbox. Or if the surgeon would forget an instrument for themselves. Toolbox monitor how often and how long tools used. This allows tools to be replaced or serviced before they become unusable.

If tools are rented, the landlord can charge you based on how much utilities are actually used. Radio Tagged boarding pass. One idea being developed for airports is to put printed disposable RFID tags on every boarding pass – this to avoid delayed flights by allowing people to see where all the passengers to a particular flight is at the airport. The passengers are far from the end or is absent, can be easily traced and brought to the attrition of time (the airlines said to always have problems with slow down passengers). Everyone saves time, money and irritation.

Detection and localization of the most … By using RFID tags on objects, people or information, it is possible – given that there are right Infrastructure – to follow their movements, how things are used, what people are doing, where a document is located.

Development of the term smart radio tags are everywhere, on everything

The world will be different as soon as there are RFID readers everywhere – in virtually every human hand – (ubiquitous RFID) and when goods, equipment, locations, including humans, are labeled with RFID tags, smart radio tags. These are mainly the companies and businesses that can streamline and profit from the development, but also consumers may have some benefits in the long run.

Some examples, far ahead:

Easier exchange goods: Say you want to change an RFID-labeled to be in the shop. Forget

receipt, it is not necessary. The product has its unique identity in the radio tag. With it you can see directly into the database when the purchase was made, prices and other information regarding your purchase if you like. While collectors store useful information.

If it turns out that there are many returns for a particular delivery, the store with an expanded RFIDinfrastruktur rapid identification of the provider of the complaint. With such a label may be possible to go back as far as anyone in the manufacturing and supply chain to seek information about the product.

Smart appliances: Imagine you have a washing machine that selects programs for the RFID information located in each garment. Or that the fridge keeps track of content because it can read the RFID-tagged containers. It sounds an alarm if expiration dates, gives suggestions for purchase, may go online to look for recipes based on what is in stock. Your wardrobe – if it is smart and your clothes are labeled – can keep track of what clothes it contains and where they are Personal data is always ready: You may choose to wear an RFID tag on the body that store (or rather points to databases where you can find) your chosen personal data of various kinds. There may be medical data, personal preferences in different ways … or your own measurements and sizes. So for example when you walk by RFIDmärkta clothes in the store, you are guided to the range of your specific sizes and preferred colors. Or when you need urgent medical care, your radio tags provide caregivers instant access to personal information that is relevant and stored in databases somewhere.

Easier purchase: You can buy a thing, simply take it and leave the store – try the radio tagged hat, keep it on and just go.

Payment is made automatically by your RFID-enabled debit card in your pocket and RFID tag in the hat interact and get along with the store’s contactless POS system on the transaction.

Questions about ubicomp

What are the risks of ubicomp?

Issues discussed in the development of ubiquitous computing is the management of privacy, identity and data security. What characteristics and qualities ubicomp systems need to have for people to have confidence in the systems?

Many ubicomp systems will be more or less invisible, embedded in environment. They will be available virtually everywhere and always – at least in an ideal world and it may become so in the future. People are expected to interact with such systems – many such systems – in a natural and undramatic way in everyday activities and situations. Services will be delivered automatically, without user intervention or active involvement.

Gradually, it is easy to take all this for granted. It is no longer aware of many of the computer systems that actually work and communicate on matters large and small in one’s environment and what it could have on impact.

If a ubicomp system can deliver in any meaningful personalized services in different situations that require knowledge of the person. The technology provides extensive opportunities

• to continuously collect data about a person’s activities, which he communicating with, what it does, who it hits, what it buys and what choice person is doing in different situations, and so on. Typical preferences, habits and behaviors. It can technically be done in many different ways, in different environments and over time.

• to quickly search the database with all the information collected to get access to an even more detailed profile of the person. In principle this can be done in real time and be based on information that the person is not necessarily aware that it is stored. All of this can be the basis for the design of personalized services.

Prior to these opportunities should be widespread, there is reason to think of personal privacy:

• The amount of personal information stored and circulates around the system

will increase enormously.

• If and when the biometric interface will be used, data quality of such personal information to be substantially higher than conventional personal information and thus be used in more innovative ways.

• If ubicomp systems personalized services at all the be possible and meaningful, it is necessary to monitor and record a Much of human activities during the day. Without such input reduces the value, usefulness and meaning of many prospective ubicomp products.

This is a development which essentially is a few years. But if it should be possible to make people feel safe in a ubicomp-existence, it is essential that systems be designed to satisfy privacy.

Otherwise, it may be difficult to obtain public acceptance of evolution.

Early approaches to such as RFID-label goods in commerce, passports and money, has met with resistance by including privacy, to precisely such RFID-tagged items would able to remotely read without the wearer’s knowledge or approval.

Given that much more ambitious and comprehensive ubicomp-ventures are being developed, there may be risks to future resistance against a general proliferation of such systems.

The potential dangers of certain ubicomp systems differ in nature is not so much of what has already experienced with computers, internet and mobiles. There is such thing as identity theft, malicious attacks, digital segregation, spamming and the risk of information stress. In ubicomp systems with dispersed sensor seems the risk of malicious and unauthorized surveillance as large.

Possibly it is that if users feel sufficiently from a service, it is easy to shoot any risks in the background. It turns out so far in the use of mobile phones, where it is technically possible to retrospectively trace the location and time of a call, this does not frighten the majority of users. The benefit exceeds the risk of detection. As ubicomp evolves, the risks of detection, monitoring, etc. (also in real time) to be significantly higher than current cell phones. It is therefore reasonable to privacy and data protection as far as possible built into the systems, so users do not actively have to think about protecting themselves and their personal data.

If it were, covered much of the thought of future ubicomp systems which form intended to operate discreetly in the background to deliver customized services in everyday situations – without the user having to hold on to computers or data protection.

This is a complex issue. A major challenge to solve.

Information stress? Or peace to be kept informed?

To access information and knowledge that can be done very efficiently by ubiquitous computing. Access is possible anywhere, at any time since the system is constantly available. This information is available tailored to where you are and, at best, taking into account the current context (context sensitivity).

The user has access to context-based information (as detailed map of the district, scheduled for planned travel, dynamic navigation assistance) in order to orient themselves, find their way to a desired resource and make better decisions with a minimum of work. Mobile working can be facilitated considerably if you can give and receive information anytime and anywhere.

On the other hand, the user may become awash with information of this kind systems. It can be much more than what comes through the Internet today. In Unlike today’s PC and Internet use that mostly takes place “and to” ubiquitous computing that will literally surround the people almost all the time (Especially those who dress in their communicating an athletic system that can be in a permanent multi-media contact with the outside world).

It can make the individual the target of constant uninvited attempts to influence of such advertising, marketing, connect attempts of various kinds – a spamming that may be many times greater than in today’s email. In a market situation, where the battle for people’s conscious attention is increasingly fierce – and where it is increasingly difficult to attract the attention of an increasingly information-noise – the commercial interests to be very inventive.

Such a development could mean that it becomes increasingly difficult to relax mentally simply by stopping the flow of information and services. Although the user can actively opt out to be pressed-specific information, or filter out certain types of services, so it’s about the need to be active and in advance to decide what you want and do not have access to a ubicompsystem.

The risk is that people should experience interference and disruption of everyday life by ubiquitous computing.

Data security?

Information security will be one of the biggest issues in the development of ubicomputing.

By its very nature, when these systems operate at many locations and perhaps it is not clear how far the system extends. They serve many people to be mobile with many different types of services.

Data sets that are communicated in wireless systems can be enormous – far greater than what is handled in today’s communication systems.

To some extent, these issues might be resolved with the next-generation Internet IPv6. The technology supports wireless applications and provides high data security. Major challenges in the development of ubicomp applications is to create very secure and reliable systems (eg, better than today’s personal computers or mobile phones); which is cheap (so they can spread to truly become “ubiquitous”) and easy to use. In addition, it is important to find ways to reduce energy demand.

It is particularly crucial for the use of sensor networks in ubicomp applications, so that these sensors can operate autonomously, long lasting and safe.

Have ubicomp potential to include all people?

An open question is whether future ubiquitous computing will have the potential to include the majority of people in delivering urgent and practical useful services, many of them innovative. Will most people to have access to such services in their everyday surroundings? Is it possible to trust continuous availability, security and integrity are adequately protected?

These are issues that are at least as anxious to resolve as to create the purely technical level for ubicomp applications. There is otherwise a risk of some form of segregation between those who have access to a ubicomp-based service offerings and those who do not.

What happens when everyone and everything can communicate with everyone and everything?

When computers are the future increasingly will disappear into the background and we delegate more or less complex processes or tasks to a ubicomp systems arise some questions:

• How many different computer systems, I daily to surround myself with 2020?

• How secure are these systems?

• How can I always be sure that a system is working completely for me sake if I can not always follow what it does? What are my guarantees it?

• How to deal with the huge amounts of data (may be many personal data) that are continuously generated in these systems?

• Many ubicomp systems will have global reach and be very complex – will we even be able to understand them?

• Will the “computer-inexperienced” people to have confidence in ubicomp systems

and have an ability to deal with them?

• Can I as a user defend my integrity and protect me from information about me and my preferences and behavior does not spread further, stored somewhere, compared with other data and analyzed by someone who I do not know?

• Is ubicomp systems, among others based on getting to know my personal preferences at all compatible with the need for privacy?

• Will the vision of ubiquitous computing, where electronic digital technology embedded in virtually everything, all things and in all places that lead to a dramatic increase in energy consumption in the community?

• Gradually, it is possible that most of the processes in society (Management, payments, ticketing, information access, commerce, banking, traveling, vacationing, etc.) will have an involvement of ubiquitous computing. Either can be ubicomp as an endorsement of the business. Or so is the service available only through ubicomp. Will it mean that people in general will have to use the ubicomp should not be left out the ability to perform various everyday tasks as to inform themselves, pay, buy tickets, etc.?

• How will ubiquitous computing to evolve into reality? How quickly do it spread? What impact will there be in society?

Questions like these (and many others) suggest that the development of future ubiquitous computing is a major challenge.

Research and development in ubiquitous computing vision is highly exaggerated.

Consider that the gap between vision and reality can be large.

Many of the applications is attributed to ubiquitous computing may take long time to realize. Even longer it can take to get them in wide use in a market. Other applications may never be implemented.

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